Series Candicantes Focke

Serie Candicantes Focke, Syn. Rub. Germ.: 154 (1877).

Type (art. 22.6): Rubus candicans Weihe ex Rchb. (= R. montanus Lib. ex Lej.).

Weber (1986) sates that Rubus candicans Weihe ex Rchb. would be identical to R. silesiacus Weihe, because Reichenbach quotes this species in the protologue of his R. candicans, so that this would be a nomen superfluum for R. silesiacus. Consequently the series Candicantes would be typified by this species and a synomym of the Micantes to which R. silesiacus belongs.

However we must come to different conclusions. Firstly Focke (1877) excludes his R. silesiacus from his Candicantes and therefore the rule of autonomy is not applicable (ICN, art, 22: “unless the original author of the higher-ranking name designated another type”; this is clear from the fact that R. silsesiacus is excluded).

There is another argument. Reichenbach writes that the names in Wimmer & Grabowaski (1829) are difficult to identify. This means that there is doubt about the taxonomic identity and thus these names in his eyes must be considered as nomina dubia.

A third argument: after the name R. silesiacus he writes ‘Weihe olim’. Comparing this expression with other names, such as R. arenarius, that he quotes the same way, makes clear that this is not about described species, but about earlier herbarium specimens.

So we must the publication of R. candicans conceive as an independent publication which is nomenclatorically not superfluous. The name is a taxonomic synonym of R. montanus Lib. ex Lej. Therefore Candicantes (1877) is the correct name of the series which in later literature is often labeled as Discolores (P.J.Müll.)


Focke, W.O. 1877. Synopsis Ruborum Germaniae: Die deutschen Brombeerarten ausführlich beschrieben und erläutert. Müller, Bremen.

Reichenbach, H.G.L.. 1832. Flora Germanica excursoria. Cnoblauch, Lipsiae (Leipzig).

Weber, H.E. 1986. Zur Nomenklatur und Verbreitung der von K.E.A. Weihe aufgestellten Taxa der Gattung Rubus L. (Rosaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 106: 293–335.

Wimmer, F. & H. Grabowski. 1829. Flora Silesiae 2. Korn, Vratislava (Breslau).